International issues

what is the difference between signing and ratifying a particular treaty? for example the United Nations Convention against Torture, India signed this treaty in 1997 but not ratified it

SIGNING: A representative (ministers/prime minister) may sign a treaty/charter (like UN charter/convention), by accepting the terms of the charter/convention. But it is not binding on the state (india) without ratification.

RATIFICATION: The parliament (india) should approve this signing of the charter/convention. Then it will officially binding . If parliament not gives approval, then it will be not officially binding.

Signature means state saying yes to the proposal of the agreement but is not legally binding

Ratification means state is completely binding to it by passing a law to enforce it as per its procedures i.eby making parliamentary law.